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Diseases



Epistaxis

What is Epistaxis?

Epistaxis as acute hemorrhage from the nostril, nasal cavity, or nasopharynx. Epistaxis is bleeding from the nostril.

Causes

  • Allergic rhinitis
  • An object stuck in the nose
  • Barotrauma
  • Blowing the nose very hard
  • Chemical irritants
  • Direct injury to nose, including a broken nose
  • Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia
  • Nose picking
  • Overuse of decongestant nasal sprays
  • Repeated sneezing
  • Surgery on the face or nose
  • Taking large doses of aspirin or blood-thinning medicine
  • Upper respiratory infection
  • Very cold or very dry air

Repeated nosebleeds may be a symptom of another disease such as high blood pressure, allergies,a bleeding disorder or a tumor of the nose or sinuses.

Symptoms:

Nosebleeds usually involve one nostril, but occasionally both nostrils are involved. If one nostril becomes partially blocked with a blood clot, the blood might flow out the other nostril or down the back of the throat. In a posterior nosebleed (higher up in the nose), large amounts of blood typically flow down the back of the throat. The amount of bleeding from a nosebleed can vary with posterior bleeds usually bleeding significantly more.

 

 

Fever

 

 

What is Fever?

Fever is one infection, which rings an alarm bell in people of all age groups. Especially so in parents whose child has a fever. For us as doctors it is not important to just treat the fever. Fever is only the body's reaction and not the main infection per se. Our aim is to investigate & find out where is the origin of the fever. Fever is always an out come of some internal infection & unless that is dealt with the fever does not subside.

Causes:

  • Infectious disease, e.g., influenza, HIV, malaria, infectious mononucleosis, or gastroenteritis
  • Various skin inflammations, e.g., boils, or abscess
  • Immunological diseases, e.g., lupus erythematosis, sarcoidosis, inflammatory bowel diseases, Kawasaki disease
  • Tissue destruction, which can occur in hemolysis, surgery, infarction, crush syndrome, rhabdomyolysis, cerebral hemorrhage, etc.
  • Reaction to incompatible blood products
  • Cancers, most commonly kidney cancer and leukemia and lymphomas
  • Metabolic disorders, e.g., gout or porphyria
  • Thrombo-embolic processes, e.g., pulmonary embolism or deep venous thrombosis

Symptoms:

  •  lethargy
  •  depression
  •  anorexia
  •  sleepiness
  •  hyperalgesia
  •  inability to concentrate.

Gall stones

What are Gallstones?

Gallstones are collections of hard, solid material that form in the gallbladder. Some may be the size of a grain of sand, or they may be crystals that can be seen only with a microscope. Others may be the size of a golf ball. People can develop just one large stone, hundreds of smaller stones, or combinations of both.

Causes:

  • Gallstones form when cholesterol and other things found in bile make stones.
  • They can also form if the gallbladder does not empty as it should.
  • People who are overweight or who are trying to lose weight quickly are more likely to get gallstones
  • Women taking oral contraceptives.
  • Women undergoing high-dose estrogen therapy
  • People with a close relative who has had gallstones.
  • A study revealed that a gene variant significantly increases the risk of developing gallstones
  • People whose intake of dietary fat is high.
  • Twice as many women get gallstones than men.
  • People over 60 years of age.
  • People who take statins (cholesterol-lowering drugs).
  • People with diabetes

Symptoms:

  • Pain on the right-hand side of the body, just below the ribs
  • Back pain
  • Pain in the right shoulder
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Sweating
  • Restlessness

 

Generalized Anxiety Disorder(GAD)

What is Generalized anxiety disorder(GAD)?

It is a pattern of constant worry and anxiety over many different activities and events.

Causes:

It is a common condition. Genes may play a role. Stress may also contribute to the development of GAD.

Anyone can develop this disorder, even kids. Most people with the disorder report that they have been anxious for as long as they can remember. GAD occurs somewhat more often in women than in men.

Symptoms:

  • Constant presence of worry or tension, even when there is little or no cause. Worries seem to float from one problem to another, such as family or relationship problems, work issues, money, health, and other problems.
  • Even when aware that their worries or fears are stronger than needed, a person with GAD still has difficulty controlling them.
  • Difficulty concentrating.
  • Fatigue
  • Irritability
  • Problems falling or staying asleep, and sleep that is often restless and unsatisfying
  • Restlessness, and often becoming startled very easily

Along with the worries and anxieties, a number of physical symptoms may also be present, including muscle tension (shakiness, headaches) and stomach problems, such as nausea or diarrhea

Gout

What is Gout?

A disorder of the body where the required amount of uric acid is not excreted but accumulated giving rise to inflammation and pains in various joints of the body. The toe and ankle are usually affected. They are very painful & do not respond to normal painkillers. Along with the medication it is very important to have a proper dietary assessment & shift on a low protein diet

Causes:

The levels of uric acid in your blood rise until the level becomes excessive (hyperuricemia), causing urate crystals to build up around the joints. This causes inflammation and severe pain when a gout attack happens. 

The following have been known to bring about a gout attack and may be contributory causes of gout:

  • obesity
  • heavy alcohol consumption, especially beer
  • a diet high in purine foods, such as seafood and meat, and meat organs
  • extremely low calorie diets
  • regular aspirin use
  • regular niacin use
  • regular use of diuretic medicines
  • medicines taken by transplant patients, such as cyclosporine
  • fast weight loss
  • chronic kidney disease
  • hypertension (high blood pressure)
  • psoriasis
  • tumors
  • myeloma
  • hemolytic anemia
  • lead poisoning
  • hypothyroidism
  • surgery
  • Kelley-Seegmiller syndrome
  • Lesch-Nyhan syndrome

Symptoms:

  • The pain come on suddenly without warning. A significant proportion of patients experience them at night.
  • Severe pain in the joints - The patient may experience pain in his ankles, hands, wrists, knees or feet. More commonly the big toe is affected (podagra). Many patients describe the affected areas as warm/hot. The fluid sacs that cushion tissue (bursae) may become inflamed (bursitis) - when this happens in the elbow it is called olcranon bursitis, while in the knee prepatellar bursitis.
  • Gradually goes away - A bout can last for over a week if left untreated - and then gradually goes away during the following week or two.
  • Itchy and peeling skin later - As the gout subsides the skin around the affected area may be itchy and peel. By the end of it the patient feels fine.
  • Redness and inflammation - The sufferer will most likely have tender, red and swollen joint(s) in the areas that experienced the most pain.
  • Red/purplish skin - The affected area may become red or purplish, making the patient think he has an infection.
  • Fever - Some patients have an elevated temperature.
  • Less flexibility - The affected joint may be harder to use, the patient has limited movement.
  • No symptoms - Some patients experience no symptoms. In these cases it may develop into chronic gout.
  • Nodules - The gout may first appear as tophi (nodules) in the elbows, hands, or ears

Haemorrhoids/Piles

What is Piles?

Piles are hemorrhoids that become inflamed. Hemorrhoids are masses, clumps, cushions of tissue in the anal canal - they are full of blood vessels, support tissue, muscle and elastic fibers

Causes:

  • Irregular bowel habits (constipation or diarrhea)
  • Nutrition (low-fiber diet)
  • Increased intra-abdominal pressure (prolonged straining)
  • Pregnancy, genetics
  • Absence of valves within the hemorrhoidal veins
  • Aging.
  • Obesity and sitting for long periods of time.
  • During pregnancy, pressure from the fetus on the abdomen and hormonal changes cause the hemorrhoidal vessels to enlarge.
  • Delivery also leads to increased intra-abdominal pressures
  • Constipation
  • Modern day lifestyle
  • Irregular diet

Symptoms:

  • Itching, rectal pain, and rectal bleeding.
  • Mucous discharge and fecal incontinence. 
  • External hemorrhoids are painful, while internal hemorrhoids usually are not unless they become thrombosed or necrotic
  • The most common symptom of internal hemorrhoids is bright red blood covering the stool.
  • They may protrude through the anus.
  • Symptoms of external hemorrhoids include painful swelling and a lump around the anus.

 

High Cholesterol

What is High Cholesterol?

Cholesterol is a waxy, fatlike substance that the body needs to function normally. Cholesterol is naturally present in cell walls or membranes everywhere in the body, including the brain, nerves, muscles, skin, liver, intestines, and heart.

The body uses cholesterol to produce many hormones, vitamin D, and the bile acids that help to digest fat. It takes only a small amount of cholesterol in the blood to meet these needs.

If a person has too much cholesterol in the bloodstream, the excess may be deposited in arteries, including the coronary arteries of the heart, the carotid arteries to the brain, and the arteries that supply blood to the legs. Cholesterol deposits are a component of the plaques that cause narrowing and blockage of the arteries, producing signs and symptoms originating from the particular part of the body that has decreased blood supply leading cardiac and celebral complications.

Causes:

  • Heredity
  •  Overweight
  • Physical activity/exercise: Regular physical activity may lower triglycerides and raise cholesterol levels.
  • Age and sex: Before menopause, women usually have lower total cholesterol levels than men of the same age. As women and men age, their blood cholesterol levels rise until about 60-65 years of age. After about age 50 years, women often have higher total cholesterol levels than men of the same age.
  • Alcohol use.
  • Mental stress

Symptoms:

High cholesterol doesn't make you feel sick. By the time you find out you have it, it may already be clogging your arteries. So it is very important to start treatment even though you may feel fine.

 

Our diet constitutes of carbohydrate, protein, & fat. Energy is stored in the body in form of glycogen & adipose tissue (fat). Excess of blood fats (FFA free fatty acids) can cause deposition in the blood vessels leading to cardiac & cerebral complications. It is important to keep the levels of triglycerides, LDL & VLDL cholesterol as low as possible. This can be done by drastically improving the food habits. Our routine food could be very rich in fat, which increases cholesterol & body weight. Normal blood cholesterol must be kept below the level of 200 mg% & Triglycerides below 150 mg %. At the clinic appropriate diet instructions are advised along with the medication.

 

Hypertension

What is Hypertension?

Hypertension or High blood pressure is a common condition in which the force of the blood against your artery walls is high enough that it may eventually cause health problems, such as heart disease.

Blood pressure is determined by the amount of blood your heart pumps and the amount of resistance to blood flow in your arteries. The more blood your heart pumps and the narrower your arteries, the higher your blood pressure

Causes:

  • Smoking
  • Obesity or being overweight
  • Diabetes
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Lack of physical activity
  • High levels of salt intake (sodium sensitivity)
  • Insufficient calcium, potassium, and magnesium consumption
  • Vitamin D deficiency
  • High levels of alcohol consumption
  • Stress
  • Aging
  • Medicines such as birth control pills
  • Genetics and a family history of hypertension
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Adrenal and thyroid problems or tumors

Symptoms:

There is no guarantee that a person with hypertension will present any symptoms of the condition. About 33% of people actually do not know that they have high blood pressure, and this ignorance can last for years. For this reason, it is advisable to undergo periodic blood pressure screenings even when no symptoms are present. 

 

Along with diabetes another health condition that's been making headlines is hypertension or high blood pressure. We have treated patients as young as 18 yrs. of age getting being diagnosed as hypertensive. This problem is a silent killer & the symptoms are not always noticeable. 70 % of the cases suffer from essential hypertension. (i.e. Exact cause remains elusive) Some of the causes that lead to this complaint include kidney diseases, Endocrinal disorder, Alcohol, drugs, pregnancy, & Stress. Symptoms- most patients remain asymptomatic but a few may have throbbing, pulsating headaches & head heaviness. Not treating this condition promptly can lead to cerebral hemorrhage (Stroke), retinal & renal damage. Along with medications it is important to bring about a change in life style. This includes reducing stress (physical as well as mental), regular exercise, weight loss, healthy food habits, & a salt restricted diet. All these help in managing the problem & for those who don't suffer from it, this regimen will help in keeping the problem at bay.

 

Insomnia

What is Insomnia?

Insomnia is a symptom, not a stand-alone diagnosis or a disease. By definition, insomnia is "difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep or both or the perception of poor quality sleep..

Causes:

  • Psychological causes
  • Physical causes
  • Temporary events or factors

       Psychological Causes

  • Anxiety
  • Stress.
  • Depression

       Physical causes

  • Hormonal changes in women.
  • Medical conditions. These include allergies, arthritis, asthma, heart disease, high blood pressure, hyperthyroidism, and Parkinson's disease.
  • Pain. Pain and discomfort from a medical illness or injury often interfere with sleep.
  • Genetics.

Temporary Events Or Factors

  • Adjustment sleep disorder. This form of sleeplessness is a reaction to change or stress. It may be caused by a traumatic event such as an illness or loss of a loved one, or a minor event such as a change in the weather or an argument with someone.
  • Jet lag
  • Working the night shift or long shifts
  • Medications. Insomnia can be a side effect of various medications, both prescription and over-the-counter.
  • Overuse of caffeine and alcohol.
  •  Environmental noise, extreme temperatures, or a change in a person's surrounding environment.

Symptoms:

  • Poor concentration and focus
  • Difficulty with memory
  • Impaired motor coordination (being uncoordinated)
  • Irritability and impaired social interaction
  • Motor vehicle accidents because of fatigued, sleep-deprived drivers
  • Stress (mental, emotional, situational, etc), 
  • Difficulty concentrating during the day 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

What is Irritable Bowel Syndrome?

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common disorder that affects your large intestine (colon). Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common ailments of the bowel (intestines). The several terms used for IBS, including spastic colon, spastic colitis, and mucous colitis, attest to the difficulty of getting a descriptive handle on the ailment. Moreover, each of the other names is itself as problematic as the term IBS. IBS doesn't do any damage and there isn't any infection or other cause of disease

Causes:

  • emotional stress
  • eating
  • excessive gas
  • female hormones (for women with IBS, symptoms often worsen during their periods)
  • certain medications and food (e.g., alcohol, chocolate, coffee, dairy products)

Symptoms:

  • abdominal pain and cramps, which may come in "on-again, off-again" bouts or as a continuous dull ache
  • constipation or diarrhea, or alternating periods of both
  • urgent need to have a bowel movement
  • excessive gas
  • bloating
  • changes in bowel habits
  • mucus in the stool

Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD)

 

 

What is Ischemic heart disease(IHD)?

Ischemic Heart Disease, also known as Coronary Artery Disease, is a condition that affects the supply of blood to the heart. The blood vessels are narrowed or blocked due to the deposition of cholesterol on their walls. This reduces the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscles, which is essential for proper functioning of the heart. This may eventually result in a portion of the heart being suddenly deprived of its blood supply leading to the death of that area of heart tissue, resulting in a heart attack.  This condition occurs most often during exertion or excitement, when the heart requires greater blood flow.

Causes:

  • The major risk factors are smoking, diabetes mellitus and cholesterol levels.
  • Those with Hypercholesterolemia have a much higher tendency to develop the disease.
  •  Hypertension is also a risk factor in the development of Ischemic Heart Disease
  • Genetic and hereditary factors may also be responsible for the disease.
  • Stress is also thought to be a risk factor.

Symptoms:

  • Angina pectoris (chest pain on exertion, in cold weather or emotional situations)
  • Acute chest pain: which can be associated with acute coronary syndrome, unstable angina or myocardial infarction
  • Heart failure -difficulty in breathing or swelling of the extremities due to weakness of the heart muscle

 

Laryngitis

What is Laryngitis ?

Laryngitis is the medical term for inflammation and swelling of the larynx, which is also known as the voice box.

Causes:

Laryngitis is usually caused by a virus or occurs in people who overuse their voice. Occasionally, a person may develop laryngitis from bacterial infections, and rarely, from infections such as tuberculosissyphilis, or a fungal infection. People with prolonged laryngitis should see their doctor to be checked for tumors, some of which may be cancerous. Smokers and those who consume alcohol are also at a risk of laryngitis..

Symptoms:

The most common symptoms of laryngitis

  • Feeling a tickle in the throat (that may be from reflux laryngitis)
  • The urge to constantly clear the throat (that may be from reflux laryngitis)
  • Fever
  • Cough (that can be from bronchitis orsinusitis)
  • Congestion
  • Hoarseness.

 

Leucorrhoea

What are Leucorrhoea?

Leucorrhoea (Vaginal discharge)is a universal problem of all women.It is a condition in which the whitish vaginal discharge due to
inflammation or irritation of membranes female reproductive organs.
Often occurs normally, but if excessive, may be a sign of infection.

Causes:

  • Improper hygienic conditions
  • Improper eating habits
  • Indigestion and constipation
  • Hormonal disorder

Symptoms:

  

  • General body weakness
  • Digestive problems
  • Constipation
  • Headaches and dizziness
  • Discharge
  • Pain in lumbar region and calves
  • Itching sensation
  • Lower abdominal pain
  • Sorness and burning in gential tract
  • Burning urination and frequent urge to pass very little urine

 

Migraine

What is Migraine?

Migraine is a chronic disorder characterized by moderate to severe headaches and nausea. It is believed to be a neurovascular disorder. Migraines are about three times more common in women than in men.

 A typical migraine headache is unilateral (affecting one half of the head) and pulsating in nature and lasting from two to 72 hours. Approximately one-third of people who suffer from migraine headaches perceive an aura—transient visual, sensory, language, or motor disturbances signaling the migraine will soon occur.

Causes:

 Potential migraine triggers include:

  • Allergies and allergic reactions
  • Bright lights, loud noises, and certain odours or perfumes
  • Physical or emotional stress
  • Changes in sleep patterns or irregular sleep
  • Smoking or exposure to smoke
  • Skipping meals or fasting
  • Alcohol
  • Menstrual cycle fluctuations, birth control pills, hormone fluctuations during menopause onset
  • Tension headaches
  • Foods containing tyramine (red wine, aged cheese, smoked fish, chicken livers, figs, and some beans), monosodium glutamate (MSG), or nitrates (like bacon, hot dogs, and salami)
  • Other foods such as chocolate, nuts, peanut butter, avocado, banana, citrus, onions, dairy products, and fermented or pickled foods.

Triggers do not always cause migraines, and avoiding triggers does not always prevent migraines..

Symptoms:

Symptoms of migraine can occur a while before the headache, immediately before the headache, during the headache, and after the headache. Although not all migraines are the same, typical symptoms include:

  • Moderate to severe pain, usually confined to one side of the head, but switching in successive migraines
  • Pulsing and throbbing head pain
  • Increasing pain during physical activity
  • Inability to perform regular activities due to pain
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Increased sensitivity to light and sound
  • More than 50 % of the cases have a genetic predisposition.

Osteo-arthritis (OA)

What is Osteoarthritis?

Osteoarthritis is a form of arthritis that features the breakdown and eventual loss of the cartilage of one or more joints. Cartilage is a protein substance that serves as a "cushion" between the bones of the joints.Before age 45, osteoarthritis occurs more frequently in males. After 55 years of age, it occurs more frequently in females.

Causes:

  • Mechanical injury
  • Overweight
  • Loss of strength in muscles supporting joints
  • Impairment of peripheral nerves, leading to sudden or uncoordinated movements that overstress joints.
  • aging joints

Symptoms:

Joint pain and stiffness. Osteoarthritis may affect any joint, including the hand, wrist, neck, back, knee, and hip.